Research and Development / Monitoring

Päivi M. Kauppila, Geological Survey of Finland, P.O.Box 1237, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland, e-mail: paivi.kauppila(at)

In monitoring, long-term data sets are used to evaluate whether the applied closure technologies have been sufficient and if they are performing as intended. Accuracy of the data is essential to make sure that the potential changes depicted in the data are real. Therefore, it is important to use the same monitoring methods (i.e. sampling and analysis methods) throughout the monitoring period. In addition, it should be understood what the chosen methods are actually measuring.

These web pages present the results of the Monitoring Research and Development projects carried out during Closedure project or in other projects. The aim of the research was to evaluate typical procedures and methods applied in water sampling. Results of the studies are presented in the following pages:

Figure 1. Filtration of water samples with 0.45 µm filter. (Photo © P. Kauppila, GTK).