The Mine Closure Process section reviews the concepts and definitions for mine closure, explores methods to define the objectives of closing a mine, studies fitting the closure operations in the life cycle of a mine project, and discusses the role of a Closure Management Plan in the process. In addition, the legal framework pertinent to mine closure is reviewed, with special emphasis on Finnish legislation.

Acid addition on the basis of the carbonate content
Acid-base accounting (ABA)
Acid generation potential
Aitik mine, Sweden
ARD control using waste rock layering - Samatosum mine site, British Columbia, Canada
Basal structures of waste facilities
Case studies / Wastes and waste facilities
Chemical analysis of process water from concentration tests
Chemical composition
Chemical passivation using microencapsulation
Closure objectives for wastes and waste facilities
Closure technologies / Wastes and waste facilities
Co-disposal of waste rock with tailings
Determination of the acid neutralization capacity (ANC)
Disposal in underground mine (during mine closure)
Disposal in underground mine under the water level (during mine closure)
Disposal scenarios of acid producing waste rock
Dry Cover
Geological description of ore deposit
Humidity cell testing
Impermeable basal structure - with natural materials/soils
Impermeable basal structure - with synthetic liners
Laboratory scale experiments for assessing the impacts of organic cover layer on heavy metal leaching from tailings
Leaching behaviour and leaching tests
Legislation regarding characterisation of mining waste
Mineralogical characterisation
Minimisation of the waste amount
Multi-layer soil cover
NAG test with leachate analysis
Net Acid Generation (NAG)
Neutralising base
NP calculated based on carbonate content (“carbonate NP”)
Organic and inorganic carbon
Paste pH
Permeable basal structure
Physical and geotechnical properties
Physical-chemical parameters
Placement of alkaline material above or below waste as liner or cover material
Reduction of acid production potential
Removal of water
Sampling and pre-treatment
Selective extractions
Sequential extraction procedure
Single soil layer
Solubility of harmful substances, leaching methods
Subaqueous Disposal in a Waste Management Facility
Subaqueous Disposal of Tailings in a Waste Facility- Stekenjokk Mine Site Case Study
Subaqueous in-pit disposal
Sulphur determinations
Synthetic multi-layer cover
Underwater disposal in underground mines (during mine operation)
Use of organic waste materials in topcover
Waste rock drainage prediction methods compared to actual seepage water quality
Wastes and waste facilities
Wastes and waste facilities Research and Development
Water cover
WP4 Wastes and waste facilities / Description of the WP
X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Kimheden mine, Sweden
Template for evaluation of cases
Template for evaluation of methods